URBAN GORILLA

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USC Asia Architecture & Urbanism Study Abroad Program

Mobility and The Automobile II

CHINA/ united states

China is currently undergoing rapid rates of development. As China becomes stronger as a nation, we are starting to see quantitative data that is truly jaw dropping. Throughout China, within the next twenty years, they are looking at creating 400 new airports to be built throughout the country, and the talk of airports only begins to touch the surface. With each of these airports, come complex connection systems including high-speed rails, local rails, subways, and intense highways connecting automobile and bus networks. All of these connections happening at a single node create the ability to connect these nodes creating a dense network of fluid transportation from city center to city center. This master plan is also being executed at an extraordinary speed, and if successful the ability for people to move from city to city will better promote larger distributions of people and commerce throughout China. With this robust network of public transportation, the role for automobiles in China starts to become almost insignificant. When you can get from Hong Kong to Shenzhen in approximately 14 minutes, why would you travel the hour it takes to get there by car?

The truth is though that the car is still a very important player in China, and this is mostly due to foreign influence and China’s new “capitalistic” business model. The car is still marketed as a luxury item. In china you see a higher distribution of luxury name brands on the road compared to other countries. These high-class automakers have launched their campaigns across China, and China has bought into their luxury model. In order to get a car in China, you not only have to buy the car, but you also have to buy the limited, distributed license plates. It is through this exclusivity that makes the car a luxury item within itself, through the basic principals of supply and demand. The role of the car in China is not necessarily driven based on transportation needs; rather it is based on image, wealth, and social standing.

These ideas of social standing through materialistic objects are demonstrated in the film “Beijing Bicycle”. The film focused on lower, middle, and upper classes of Beijing, and the tensions that exist amongst the three classes. The story’s true protagonist was actually a bicycle, which literally was passed back and forth through the different social classes. Guie’s character represented the lower class, where he was currently stuck. Guie was the first to obtain this shiny, new mountain bike that allowed him to experience and work for a middle class life. It was through this material object where he literally saw a better future for himself, in which other characters commented on how this Bike will truly raise him out of poverty. On the other hand, Jian represented the middle class in Beijing, and he also obtained the same bike for duration of the film. The bike was used as a way to blend in with his classmates. When the bike was out of Jian’s possession he immediately felt insignificant, and alienated himself from his peers. This contrast on the importance of a single bike to two completely different people and classes shows the power behind materialistic objects in China.

The end of “Beijing Bicycle” framed a street view, and the power of this image really summed up the complexity material objects have in China. The streetscape seemed to be nothing out of the ordinary for Beijing. The difference was the filter that the film set up to view this scene. After watching the impact one bicycle had on two completely different people, demonstrated the power of material objects in Chinese culture. The streetscape then took the idea of the bike and applied it to the automobile. The street was busy with car traffic up and down the center of the streets, and pushed off to the side was another lane of strictly bicycle traffic. This image addressed the idea on how severe social issues are in China, and how obtaining material items for transportation has become one of the key players in determining social standing.

The automobile plays significant roles not only in America, but also in China. In America the idea of necessity plays a crucial part on why we have so much dependence on the automobile. In Contrast, China could technically function without cars, but the idea of luxury plays a larger role in why cars have become so widely accepted. When the car gets put up on a pedestal, as the glorified form of transportation there is no doubt that it will create the desire to obtain one. With China pumping out more and more licenses every day, soon supply will meet demand, and we will start to see the car becoming more obtainable to the Chinese people, very much how the car became more obtainable to the American People. With China’s extreme infatuation with the intrinsic properties of materialistic objects, I question how far off they are from becoming another form of a congested America? With their new market driven economy the idea of ego will take larger precedent than with the ideas of a functioning society. Will the automobile become the new bicycle? If this does become the situation, then China will greater influence a two-tiered society, in which the car will act as one of the greater obstacles for the lower and middle class to overcome.

Ross Renjilian

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Filed under: AAU, Architecture, Automobile, Beijing, Bicycle, Car, China, Circulation, Congestion, Public, Renjilian, Ross, Transportation, Uncategorized, Urbanism, , , ,

Mobility and The Automobile

UNITED STATES/ china

The United States has been criticized for its lack of public transportation, and ability to move around urban centers. This is largely in part due to the automobile development being one of the primary sources for America’s economic and industrial strength. With American automobile manufacturers pumping out new makes and models, the automobile has become a fashion accessory to the average American household. Many times we are not talking about one car per household, rather one car per person, and now we can start to understand why America is having such congestion problems. The truth is though that America is fixated on the car. Even if robust public transportation systems were in play, my guess is that many Americans would still opt to travel by their beloved automobile.

Sprawl has been a key contributor towards the automobile lifestyle. The American model of suburbia has been fully utilized, and has allowed our cities to reach out hundreds of miles from their epicenter. America has the land, which allows us to live in low-density situations. This creates the “American Dream” lifestyle with the two-story house outside of the city surrounded by a white picket fence, and a yard for the kids to play in. This dream has been adopted by millions of Americans, and has contributed to this object sprawl across America. The ability to connect these different objects becomes daunting. Even worse are sprawled cities like Los Angeles with higher populations being scattered over a large area, allowing no hierarchy across the landscape. In these conditions public transportation becomes extremely difficult to make efficient connections to move people amongst the fabric. Public transportation becomes fully utilized when its convenience is greater than the car. This is seen in cities like Boston, and New York where street congestion and parking conditions are nearly impossible. Public transportation also becomes a viable business model in environments with higher density. Higher density equals more people in given areas, which provides quicker turn over rates and shorter distances. Low sprawl environments don’t have enough people per given area allowing for public transportation to be inefficient.

Another reason for this automobile craze is the luxury factor. In America the auto industry is celebrated similar to high fashion. Promoting the idea that the car is a reflection of you, and a tool for measuring success. With so many makes and models, which fall into different value systems such as cost, performance, versatility, and aesthetics, the car has advanced from people mover to a work of art and design. America has literally put the car up on a pedestal, and has shown it not only to the United States as the best way to move, but has also sold this model to the world. The automobile in America has become the most respectable way to not only travel, but to travel in style and “convenience” to the individual.

The success of the automobile also comes from the means of obtaining one. In America having your very own car is as simple as 199 down, 199 a month for 48 months, and a tagged on 1.9 % interest rate. Although this terminology doesn’t sound simple, this strategy of borrowing has made the car easily obtainable. It is difficult for many families to put down $30,000 for a car, but when you spread that cost out over 48 months, the car itself becomes more realistic. The truth is that with our given lack of public transportation, it is nearly impossible to live outside of urban density without a car. This cause and effect relationship is based on the demand for cars, and the ability to get financing for them; the two systems feed off of each other. In retrospect  Oprah’s motto;  “EVERYBODY GETS A CAR” is almost the reality.

It is through these various factors that the “land of the automobile” has been born, and as a country we have strived and became comfortable with the presence of our companions. Houses have been fitted with a two or three car garage, and a long driveway connecting our objects to our overbuilt/ under built roadway infrastructure. City streets are split down the middle allowing people to only cross at intersections. As a country we have accepted to travel 10 miles in either 10 minutes, or 2 hours. Our dependence on the automobile has started to become a burden on our country. The dependence on oil in order to keep The United States functioning has created excruciating tension that makes us enslaved to oil prices. We have to rely on other countries for importing oil, for we cannot even come close to producing as much as we consume. The automobile has given Americans the opportunity to sprawl, and has created new terminology such as rush hour, which focuses on the absurd number of people traveling, within certain time constraints of the day, into and out of the downtown areas. Even with all of these problems, America still willingly depends on the automobile as their primary source of transportation, and many see no other model to be fit.

Ross Renjilian

Filed under: America, Architecture, Automobile, Car, Congestion, Problems, Public, States, Suburbia, Transporation, United, Urbanism, , ,

The Urban Generation

At the beginning of the 1990’s, a new wave of Chinese filmmakers emerged out of industry taking the world by storm, calling themselves “The Sixth Generation”. It was coined as “the return of the amateur filmmaker” because of the trademark use of producing edgier underground films that relied on long takes, hand-held cameras, etc. However, through all the usage of techniques like nonlinear narratives, fast-motion camera, jump cuts, and a lighting style similar to film-noir, the essence of these films always revolved around the urban. This new generation of filmmakers, including Wang Xiaoshuai (Beijing Bicycle) portrayed a less romantic view of the urban, but focused on the disorientation and loss of place associated with the metropolis. It was the intention of these filmmakers to highlight the negative repercussions of China’s emergence on the global-economics front through the often unpleasant and mundane activities/spaces. These films are intentionally set within the metropolis as a way to narrate and deal with the urban physiology in hand with the psychological; what becomes of the public/private space in the rapidly urbanizing Chinese city? The following are various clips from two sixth generation filmmakers: Lou Ye’s Suzhou River, Jia Zhangke’s The World.

Lou Ye’s major motif of the river serves as the backdrop from which the story and, to a certain extent, the city of Shanghai is perceived. The Suzhou River has historically been a major waterway that has supplied trade and commerce to the development of Shanghai. But the former glory is sharply contrasted with what Lou depicts: dark and muddied and filled with trash. The city in the background is starkly imposed upon images of decrepit steel factories decaying at the river’s edge, the crumbling ruins of an industrial China. In essence, the Suzhou River once supplied the lifeblood to the city, but now merely acts as a relic of time, receiving the waste of Shanghai’s shift into urbanization. What is the real Shanghai, is it the romanticized picture of glamour, or is it really comprised of the gritty reality engrained within the urban fabric?

The World is a film about the unfulfilled lives of a few characters that work at a World theme park. Zhangke celebrates the glamour of this make-believe world, but undermines the superficial through exposing the deception of what the park really means. The despair of the characters is epitomized by the soul-less architectural manifestations that surround them; it is representative of their desire to escape, yet inability to actually do so. Their search for the cosmopolitan associated with the urban leads them to the false realization of “traveling the world”. If the metropolis has evolved to point of quantifying and servicing the macro, global scale as a commodity, what then becomes real? For some, a theme park may be the closest chance they have to exploring the world/culture. It is the realization (and the capacity) of China’s global emerging perspective, but presenting it in a mundane and almost repetitive way that makes The World a telling narrative of an empty, urbanized, city.

_Jonathan

Filed under: Architecture, China, film, Jia Zhangke, Lou Ye, Metropolis, Psyche, Suzhou River, The World, Urbanism, Video,

Public Room for Public Purpose

Public spaces are created for people to use, especially in high-density environments where everyone does not own a plot of land. Some public spaces become these beautiful landscapes or these patches of greenery in the urban environment that provide relief from the surrounding concrete jungle. Although these spaces are deemed as public spaces their true purpose takes on the role of beautification and imagery. On the other hand there are public spaces that are programmed and in response become utilized. By programming the public space it allows the space to become more of an outdoor room allowing occupants to interact within the space.

It is through the concept of interaction where a person starts to become one with its given environment. When spaces are truly interactive it exploits the individual’s ability to hear, see, taste, smell, and touch the surrounding physical world. Truly successful public spaces play with your senses. They surround you with beautiful imagery and vibrant scenery, allowing you too feel the abundance of textures scattered around. Successful public spaces also allow you to smell the bread from the bakery down the street, and the salt water from the ocean. Hearing the chatter of a nearby conversation, or kids laughing and screaming in a park in the distance. It is through these sensual combinations that give unique character and life to public spaces, and without these characteristics the space is just a space. Public space is only truly successful when people can interact not only with other people, but also with the space itself.

The Madrid exhibition, at The World Exposition, really started to connect the dots for me on what really makes successful public spaces in the urban environment. Madrid has an interesting urban typology, which creates these voids within the fabric that act as urban rooms, and are reinforced by the surrounding environment’s posche. These voids throughout the urban fabric were photographed in the exhibition, and they were full of people and activities. Although I could only experience this from photographs, they still created beautiful montages of what Madrid could look like on any given day. By analyzing the photos further I started highlighting ideas that really made the pictures vibrant. Going layer by layer I started listing the architecture, the open sky, the natural landscapes, the amounts of people, the food, and the products. I started to question what really makes this space any different from city streets lined with trees, shops, and restaurants? Then I realized that there was no glass. Of course there was glass in the windows, but in the public container there was no glass that separated the people sitting at café tables eating beautiful plates of pasta and pizza, from the people in the plaza. Fragrant flowers were not in the stores, but rather being sold out on the sidewalk for people to smell, see, and touch. Nature was also being experienced with its outdoor environment and complimentary season. The public space that was captured gave the understanding of interaction and really played with the sensual emotions. The public space model of the open parks sometimes is just not enough to trigger the complex balance of program and emotions. City streets lined with stores behind glass walls become spectacles from the outside, and once inside strip away the public environment. I have started to call this idea the creep factor. The creep factor deals with the idea of allowing programs to not only be contained in their allotted space, but to also take advantage of the public domain, by finding their way to expand out of their physical container. It is when these experiences are transported from inside to outside that allow these public rooms to spark vibrancy within the space.

This is going to be a very important consideration for China, which needs to seek extreme density in order to contain its growing population. With the Shanghai Expo promoting the idea of “better city better life” China is really trying hard to create a more sustainable and livable urban environment. One method that they began to tackle was the idea of creating ample amount of green spaces, including a plan to line the entire river’s edge with a green belt. Although these ideas are very noble, green spaces will not necessarily provide a better living environment. If China wants to be seen as one of the “greenest” cities then they should keep planting, but on the other hand if China is looking at creating a more vibrant city, my argument would be to look toward Madrid. By creating spaces that allow people to interact with their surroundings will create a better life for its occupants, which in return will create a better city, a people’s city.

Ross Renjilian

Filed under: 2010, AAU, Architecture, China, Creep, Exposition, Factor, Interaction, Madrid, people, Public, Renjilian, Rooms, Ross, Shangahi, space, Uncategorized, Urbanism, World, ,

Not So SuperBlocks

Residential development in Chinese cities over the last twenty years has been primarily characterized by expansion of the urban fabric ever more outward, with large arterial roads linking government sponsored superblock communities.  These massive parcels of land, which may approach 100 acres in some cases, contain standardized highrise apartments surrounded by a green buffer zone fronting the street and connected by a ring of interior roads.  Often walls surround these vertical neighborhoods and only a single (gated) point of entry provides connection to the outside world.  With little commercial street frontage and poor pedestrian access this high density model of growth is, ironically, unsustainable in much the same way as minimally dense neighborhoods of single family homes in the United States: the communities struggle to function in a self-serving manner when a simple trip to the market all but requires hopping in the car.  Further, the lack of neighborhood retail and barriers to entry limit any notion of cohesive community and any opportunities for programmatic friction.

But the urban shortcomings of superblocks from an academic standpoint contrast with the perception held by the general public, who place a premium on the privacy and exclusivity of gated communities and proceed to snatch up these apartments as quickly as they are built.  Many even purchase units solely as investments, a sure indication of the faith they hold in the continued desirability of superblock living. Though the historical French Concession area of Shanghai and inner ring of Beijing are themselves considered highly desirable, political/economic forces (in China there is little distinction) coupled with public enthusiasm insure further proliferation of the superblock typology.

The inner ring of Beijing teaches us though that magnificent street life can in fact occur within large and relatively insular blocks.  It’s not so much that the superbock is incompatible with urbanism but rather the modern developer-driven approach is incompatible with the superblock.  Traditional Beijing hutang are a maze of human scaled canyons: 12-14 feet wide bustling alleys lined on both sides with shops, restaurants, and markets.  Residents live either above or behind the storefronts they operate and patronize, and in this way the community is self-sufficient.  A haircut or a bowl of noodles is never more than a short bike ride away, meaning a resident could potentially live for weeks without ever leaving their superblock.  Hutang then become the thoroughfares in this city within a city, and chances for programmatic friction – the barbershop next to the antique store – are abundant.

And so the key to activating and thus urbanizing superblocks has been at the disposal of the Chinese all along.  The shame is that with developers, government, and public all wedded to gated communities, we may never get to see a 21st century take on the Hutang that once defined life in China.

Matt Luery

 

Filed under: Architecture, China, Hutang, Superblocks, Urbanism,

Lambo Effect

After visiting 798 creative industry in Beijing, there was one sculpture that caught my eye. The sculpture was a model of an old school Lamborghini, Finally art that speaks my language. Instead of the model being covered in Lambo yellow, it was patterned with a multitude of bright colors. As I stepped closer I realized that it was not actually paint, rather it was plastered in Lottery Tickets.

The sculpture, by “Ghost of A Dream”, is a reflection of wealth promised by the lottery. Each object in the exhibit represents a familiar, western symbol of wealth that people can easily associate with. Creating these objects out of scratched lottery tickets represents individual’s monetary hopes being followed by their frustrating loss. This philosophy is backed by Western’s obsession with the pursuit of happiness through materialistic goods. Displaying this piece in China, a country that is fascinated with western way of life, reflects a universal frenzy for consumption.

The drive for consumption is created by the free market, and the ideas of  creating a government driven by corporations and consumerism. This model created industrial revolutions, which sky rocketed America’s economy, power, and influence through modernization and development. As a country, America started to understand that it cannot consume forever, and currently the economy is faltering due to over consumption and free market faults.

China currently is going through a very similar growth model that America has previously been through. The political model of communism is starting to take on more of a free market approach in China, and the “American Dream” model is starting to become much more prevalent in the east. This rapid development and modernization in China has already started to create a free market, in which many western values are being used as precedent. In order for China to grow as a country they are going to also have to consume.

What is starting to create tension with the idea of consumption is that resources are already starting to dwindle. Wars have been fought over oil control, and the amount of pollution that has been pumped into the environment is starting to make areas inhospitable. When we start to compare numbers, America is a country of 310 million people compared to China’s roughly 1.4 billion people, the idea of scale starts to come into play. America is starting to realize that the “American Dream” model is not necessarily a practical mindset for a world where resources are limited. America’s dependence on the car has started to create congestion and a market dependent on the price of oil. Oil is only one of numerous resources that are starting to vanish, and in the future different resources will become higher in demand.

We can only predict the impact of western values possessed by the east, and in many ways we can only hope that China learns from America’s faults as opposed to mimicking them. With the argument that America had its chance to develop, and now it is China’s turn, we already see the immaturity of the situation, and this is the part that starts to get serious. China’s search for quantitative and economic power has really been the driver for this western, free market ideology. As cities in China start to get covered in smog, this is not necessarily viewed as a problem rather as progress. Factories begin to pump out more and more products, and the instant result is that China becomes more powerful and modernized. This mentality ultimately creates the effect of 1.4 billion people searching for their yellow Lamborghini, and we can only hope they will be hybrid.

Ross Renjilian

Filed under: 798, AAU, America, American, Art, China, Creative, development, Dream, Free, Industry, Lamborghini, Market, Modernization, Politics, Renjilian, Ross, Urbanism, , ,

2 V L

 

Before I left for Asia, I thought finding my Starbuck’s double, tall, vanilla latte would become a difficult task; on the contrary it has now become an everyday ritual. Even with the language differences, the Baristas know the Starbucks lingo and, after I ramble off my order, they smile back and say, “Will that be all”. Some of the food items are unique to the Starbuck’s region, but all in all it’s just like any other Starbucks back at home. This comfortable atmosphere and exchange simplifies the ordering process, which creates a enjoyable experience.

I started to analyze this relationship I had with the coffee house. Why is it that I continually choose something that is completely western, while I am in Asia for the experience? The surface answer is that it’s easy; I know when I walk into a Starbucks that I will walk out with something that I am satisfied with. I understand what I am ordering, and I am able to convey what I am looking for to the other party.

I brought up this idea in a critique, which talked about the ideas of globalization and branding. The idea that I could have nearly identical exchanges in both the United States and Hong Kong started to sicken me. How could Hong Kong, a city with so much character and uniqueness, have a Starbucks on every corner? I felt that Hong Kong was loosing touch with its identity, and caving into the corporate America model. Starbucks is Starbucks is Starbucks

But is it? A great analogy was brought up during my critique about the idea of appearance, and the distance in which the object is viewed from. For example from far away a surface may look smooth, but as you start to move closer, and actually have the ability to touch the surface, you can realize that the surface is actually a rough texture. This notion of how far you zoom in and analyze the material really provides a greater depth to the problem. The same can hold true for Starbucks. When I first analyzed the situation I took it for its surface value. Walking into the coffee house, I identified with its logos, colors, smells, and tall, grande, viente way of life. At the surface it was Starbucks. On the other hand though this is the phenomenon. Half way across the world Starbucks has the ability to create identical experiences. When I started to look at this as a positive trait, as opposed to a negative, I realized that this is truly spectacular. I am ordering my double, tall, vanilla latte in Hong Kong. In every way this is a Hong Kong coffee house, a place where its residents and tourists come to relax, socialize, and brew up ideas.  Two completely different cultures can truly experience and appreciate the same/ but different Starbucks coffee house.

Starbucks is Starbucks is Starbucks mentality is not the end of culture, rather it is a bringing together of cultures. It creates a common tie between America and Hong Kong in which, two completely different cultures could actually sit and talk over the same cup of coffee. As mentioned before this is truly a phenomenon that comes down to Starbuck’s ability to not only make coffee, but to create an atmosphere that appeals to very different people. After stepping back, and zooming into the situation I realized that the concept of globalization might start to blur boundaries among different countries and cities, but at the same time create truly unique connections. Although Starbucks is a corporate America brand, many people in the east have accepted the Starbucks brand as their own. Urban cities are not necessarily about one culture; rather they are about many different cultures coming together. The urban environment plays as the backdrop to many different programs, and it is through different filters that we can start to realize how these different programs play out. You could have two identical programs with two different backdrops, and these backdrops could completely change a person’s experience and interaction with the program. It is this unpredictable factor that makes urbanism a complex riddle that may not have an answer, but when the ingredients mix together just right, you get that perfect double, tall, vanilla latte.

Ross Renjilian

 

Filed under: America, Branding, Double, Globalization, Hong, kong, L, Latte, Renjilian, Ross, Starbucks, Tall, Urbanism, V, Vanilla, ,

Identity Crises

7 million people live and work within Hong Kong. These 7 million people are squeezed into an area of 31 sq miles, which makes Hong Kong one of the world’s densest cities. In contrary to many other urban plans, Hong Kong has resisted urban sprawl. When cities have typically grown in the past, they tend to increase in size and area. The natural elements in Hong Kong including the mountains and the bay have been physical boundaries of the city, which have contained the city’s footprint. Therefore the only way Hong Kong can handle its population demands is by growing vertically.

In order to handle the large population, many systems and networks are in play for transportation, infrastructure, employment, and leisure. Since Hong Kong is operating on such an extreme scale, the focus is on quantity and not necessarily the individual. This is where the question of the individual’s importance to the metropolis becomes a crucial component towards the metropolis as a whole.

Cities run on numbers. Numbers are what drive industry, and industry drives growth. “The Culture Identity” states, “Industry is interested in human beings only as its customers and employees and has in fact reduced humanity as a whole, like each of its elements, to this exhaustive formula”. This drive for constantly posting numbers is truly what defines a city, which is enforced by the power of corporations in the urban environment. Each company plastering their name on top of every tower within the city demonstrates this hierarchy. This in return leaves little to no significance for the individual, moral rights, or culture.

This formula is exemplified even further during periods of intense growth. For example the industrial revolution in America, lead to economic booms to existent metropolises, and gave birth to new cities at exponential rates. Development was at an all time high, and everything in America became a business opportunity. We are seeing this same behavior in China currently. With industry reporting record numbers, and population at a staggering high, China has been exponentially growing numerically, and in return sacrificing individuality and culture.

It is in these times though that we see the human element stripped out of the urban environment. For the same reason that the economic growth of a city is strictly about numbers and not about the individual. Day in and day out, people follow the workweek system, and blend into the collective workforce, in which the urban organism is programmed to respond to these patterns.

Hong Kong has urbanistically responded to this system, through its building typologies. As The radical, vertical growth in Hong Kong has littered the urban plan with a series of pencil towers. These slender vertical towers are packed with residents and offices literally stacked one on top of the other. Every window representing a single cell of program designated to the individual. At the base of these towers are series of connections to relocate the individual to its next location either being their residence or office. This linear travel of point A to point B has isolated the individual from its urban context.

On the other hand though, there is a more complicated understanding of how the individual is tied into the city. In many cases the predominant driving force of the metropolis is money, but there are also many other elements within the city that belong to the individual. Simmel questions the role of the individual within the larger metropolis for, “It is the function of the metropolis to provide the arena for this struggle and its reconciliation. For the metropolis presents the peculiar conditions which are revealed to us as the opportunities and the stimuli for the development of both these ways of allocating roles to men”. For man to believe he is a completely free being within a city, is in my opinion a mistake, but I would have to argue that there are freedoms within a city in which man can rightfully claim. The individual comes out in the culture of the city, the charm that gives the city its character and personality. If every city ran strictly on numbers then every city would have the same aura, which I would argue is not the current case.

On the other hand if Industrialization keeps pushing forward, and we discredit the individual throughout the process, cities may become more uniform with one another and the corporate counterpart may strip the individuality from the city. Using Hong Kong as an example, the city’s street life is an important element that represents Hong Kong’s culture. We typically see groupings of street food, vendors, and traditional gift shops parasitically controlling the street territory. This element still exists throughout Hong Kong, but the A to B mentality has started to have serious affects on Street life in the area. Subways taking people off of the street has started to choke these smaller shops, which will deprive Hong Kong of its cultural identity.

Personally I think this struggle is represented in Hong Kong’s urban fabric. There is a series of perspectives in which you can view Hong Kong. By starting on top and looking down over the sea of buildings the reading is very uniform and one collective being. Buildings start meshing into one another creating this over whelming collage of windows and structure. As you start to focus though, the details of the city start to reveal themselves. In some instances each unit of the building is carefully articulated, or the street life is vibrant in contrast to what towers above it. This overlaying of individuality on top of the urban fabric starts to demonstrate the role of the individual within the collective whole. From afar we look at Hong Kong as a single entity, but as we take a closer look identity of the city becomes more apparent. It is through these glimpses of individuality that I can argue that the individual is still very prevalent in the urban fabric, and although his role may be small, it still impacts the way people experience and stand out in the urban environment.

Ross Renjilian

Filed under: Architecture, China, Culture, Density, Hong, Identity, Individual, Industry, kong, Life, Renjilian, Ross, Street, Urbanism, Urbansim, ,

Kenneth Frampton’s Urbanism Lecture Conclusion at Hong Kong University

We had the privilege to see Kenneth Frampton at Hong Kong University, and the following is his main points about urbanism and the megaform. Frampton critiqued, analyzed, and demonstrated many different forms of megastructures located within larger city plans, and what their role will be in the future of urban development. These last ten points help summarize the ideas covered throughout the lecture, and give an understanding of the challenges for urban designers and architects.

Ross Renjilian

Filed under: Architecture, China, cities, development, Frampton, Hong, Kenneth, kong, mega structure, megaform, points, Renjilian, Ross, ten, University, Urbanism, ,

Face Value

For the past 5 days we have been walking the streets of Tokyo, which has provided an experience of the city that is truly unique. By the end of the day my feet are sore, even though I wore my bulky, cushioned walking shoes. My shoulders are aching from the “fashionable” backpack suspended below. My shirt is drenched in perspiration, and for the past couple days the temperature has been well over 90. Let’s just say by the end of our long, exhausting, hot day it was not a pretty sight to be seen.

Feeling disgusted with how I feel and look, I glance around at the people who do this every day in Tokyo. I laugh to myself at how out of place I look amongst them, questioning what I decided to wear out today. The men are in suites with pristine, pressed white shirts. The women are walking around in a pair of heels that makes me ponder why my feet are sore. Everyone looks like they walked out of a page in a magazine in which, I am not a part of (leaving me with the “Where’s Waldo” phenomenon).

Through this quick glance, as I am hunched over gasping for air, I realized that Japan is a culture that cares very much about their public image. Looking presentable is not even a question.

This is very apparent when seeing the streets of Tokyo, for one thing Tokyo does not lack is shopping. Each window display lit up and glistening with the newest, trendy merchandise. Every building with it’s own name brand, and it’s own shiny façade. The store in Tokyo is much more than just a place that sells merchandise; rather it’s an identity that looks at face value to convey their message. Tokyo is well known for its slew of designer stores such as Prada, Dior, and Tod’s to just name a few. These stores don’t only look toward fashion, but rather architecture to help set them apart. Innovation and appearance are everything to these brands, and in such a competitive market this mentality leads to some pretty spectacular compositions. The stores mentioned above all have pretty intricate and structural skins, most notable being the Prada building (Herzog & De Meuron) for its diamond shape exoskeleton. The exoskeleton is used as an all in one building envelope that uses the diamond openings for interesting display windows and view ports.

As we walked through these stores in our drenched clothing, cluttered gear, and shoes that don’t quite speak Prada, we were stalked around the sales floor, and very surprisingly not asked to leave, but clearly not welcomed with open arms either. I guess we were not helping with their image, and I would agree.

Personally I really enjoy the competition of image for it’s contributions to the design world. I feel some times the idea of image is lost, by only focusing on numbers (numbers being profits, items sold, & other quantifiable data). George Simmel argues that numbers are what control people, and it is through these numbers that quantitative decisions are typically chosen over qualitative ones. The concept of money is what has made society the collective organism that it is today, which leaves no place for the individual amongst the collective. I am not going to discredit Simmel for his claims, but I am going to offer a counter argument. Numbers may govern business, and every economy is controlled by business, but at the end of the day it is still only numbers. numbers are not as innovative as image, and image although seems shallow at the surface, it’s effects go much deeper than what meets the eye. In Tokyo it is this image that governs the way people present themselves, and drives the design industry to push farther. Individuality is found in the details, although Japan operates as a collective, the pride that the Japanese take in their design and craftsmanship, create the image of individuality that drives innovation, imagination, and a little perspiration.

Ross Renjilian

Filed under: AAU, Architecture, De Meuron, Dior, Facade, Face, Fashion, Herzog, Identity, Image, Japan, Prada, Renjilian, Ross, Tod's, Tokyo, Urbanism, Value, , ,

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AAU FALL 2013:

University of Southern California
School of Architecture
Asia Architecture and Urbanism
Study Abroad Program

Director:
Andrew Liang
Instructors:
Bu Bing
Steven Chen
Yo-Ichiro Hakomori
Andrew Liang
Yuyang Liu
Neville Mars
Academic Contributors:
Thomas Chow, SURV
Bert de Muynck, Movingcities.org
Manying Hu, SZGDADRI, ITDP, Guangzhou
Clare Jacobson, Design Writer, Editor, Curator
Laurence Liauw, SPADA, Hong Kong
Mary Ann O'Donnell, Shenzhen Noted, Fat Bird, Shenzhen
Paul Tang, Verse, Shanghai
Li Xiangning, Tongji University, Shanghai
Students:
Daniel Aguilar
Hong Au
Michael den Hartog
Caroline Duncan
Nefer Fernandez
Christian Gomez
Isabelle Hong
Jin Hong Kim
Ashley Louie
Javier Meier
Paula Narvaez
Ashlyn Okimoto
Tamar Partamian
Samuel Rampy
Luis Villanueva
Krista Won
Tiffany Wu